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(State of Mongolia)
Currency: Chinese yuan (CNY)
Population: 3,1 million people
GDP (PPS): 41 bln. dollars of the USA (2018)
Area: 1,566,000 sq.km.
IRCHP: 90 (2014)
ABOUT THE COUNTRY
Mongolia, historically External Mongolia, the country located in North Central Asia. It has approximately oval form, measuring 1486 miles (2 392 km) from the West on the East and, to the maximum, 782 miles (1 259 km) from the North on the South. The area of Mongolia is approximately equivalent to the area of the countries of Western and Central Europe, and it is in the same width range. National capital of Ulaanbaatar (Mongolian: Ulaanbaatar) is in the North central part of the country. Mongolia takes the 19th place in the world and generally represents the plateau (the sublime plain with the plain or wavy poorly dismembered surface limited to distinct ledges from the next flat spaces) raised on height of 900 — 1500 m above sea level. Over this plateau a number of the massif and ridges towers. The highest of them — the Mongolian Altai stretched in the West and the southwest of the territory of the country on distance of 900 km. Its continuation are lower, not forming the uniform massif ridges which received the general name the Gobi Altai. Along border with Siberia in the northwest of Mongolia several ridges which aren't forming the uniform massif are located: Hang Huhei, the Uhlan Tayga, East Sayan Mountains, in the northeast — the massif Hentey, in the central part of Mongolia — the Hanggai array which is divided into several independent ridges.
Mongols have a long background and the most remarkable history. Huns, people who lived in Central Asia from the 3rd to the 1st century perhaps, were their ancestors. The joint Mongolian state of nomad tribes was created at the beginning of the 13th century by Genghis Khan, and his successors controlled the huge empire which the most part of China, Russia, Central Asia and the Middle East entered. The Mongolian empire eventually failed and broke up, and since 1691 northern Mongolia was colonized by China (Manzhu). With crash of board Qing in Mongolia in 1911/12, god of Gegeen (or Javzandamba), the religious leader of Mongolia, was proclaimed Bogdan Khan or the head of state. He announced independence of Mongolia, but only autonomy under sovereignty of China was reached. Since 1919 nationalist revolutionaries, with the Soviet help, forced out the Chinese troops, trying to occupy Mongolia again, and in 1921 expelled the intruded Belarusian cavalry. On July 11, 1921, then I became a holiday of anniversary of revolution. The Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed in November, 1924, and the capital of Mongolia concentrated on the main monastery of Bogdan Gegeen was renamed into Ulaanbaatar ("The red hero").
In drainage structure of Northern Mongolia two river systems dominate: Orkhon and Selenga (Russian: Selenga). Orkhon, about 700 miles long (1 130 km), is the longest river of Mongolia and entirely is within the country.
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