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Abkhazia, also spelled Abkhaziya, autonomous republic in northwestern Georgia that declared independence in 2008. Only a few countries—most notably Russia, which maintains a military presence in Abkhazia—recognize its independence. Bordering the eastern shores of the Black Sea, Abkhazia consists of a narrow coastal lowland broken by mountain spurs, followed by a hilly foreland zone of eroded marine and river terraces that merge into the steep slopes of the Caucasus Mountains located to the north. Area 3,336 square miles (8,640 square km). Pop. (2014) 240,705; (2017 est.) 243,564.
The sharp relief in close proximity to the sea gives Abkhazia a wet climate. Near-subtropical conditions prevail in the lowland, where the average January temperature remains above the freezing point and annual rainfall is 47 to 55 inches (1,200 to 1,400 mm). On the mountain slopes, climatic conditions are more severe and precipitation is heavier. Wide areas of the lowland and foreland zones have been cleared of the forests of oak, beech, and hornbeam that once covered Abkhazia.
The majority of the population is concentrated in the coastal lowland, where the larger settlements are located—the capital, Sokhumi, Och?amch?ire, and the resort centres of Gagra and Novy Afon. Prior to a separatist rebellion in the early 1990s led by ethnic Abkhaz, ethnic Georgians had made up almost half of Abkhazia’s population, while ethnic Abkhaz had accounted for less than one-fifth; Armenians and Russians made up the remainder. In 1993, however, most Georgians and some Russians and Armenians fled Abkhazia for other parts of Georgia.
Abkhaz, also called Abkhazian, Abkhaz Apswa, any member of a Caucasian people living chiefly in the Abkhazia republic in northwesternmost Georgia. The Bzyb Abkhaz, who have a distinct dialect, are found around the Bzyb River; the Abzhui Abkhaz, on whose dialect the literary language is based, live near the Kodori River; and the Zamurzakan Abkhaz are found in the southeast. The Abaza people, who speak a similar language, dwell north of the main Caucasus mountain chain around the sources of the Kuban and Zelenchuk rivers in Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia. Abaza and Abkhaz are so similar that many linguists consider them to be dialects of a single language. The traditional economy of the Abkhaz is based on cattle breeding, agriculture, viticulture, and beekeeping. In religion they are chiefly Sunn?te Muslims and Eastern Orthodox Christians.
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