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Capital: Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
Flag: The green field with a claret strip from five drawings of a carpet; a white half moon and five white stars symbolizing five main regions of Turkmenistan to the right of a strip. In 1997 under carpet patterns two crossed olive branches were added.
Anthem: Independence Turkmenistan.
MONETARY AND CREDIT BLOCK: Manat (one million), the Unit of currency, was entered by the government in November, 1993. $1 = mn0.00019 (or $1 = mn5,200) as of 2005, but exchange rates strongly fluctuate.
SCALES AND MEASURES: the metric system is used.
HOLIDAYS: New year, on January 1; Day of a flag, on February 19; International Women's Day, on March 8; Nowruz Bayram (first day of spring), on March 21; Victory Day, on May 9; Day of revival and unity, on May 18; Independence Day, on October 27; Day of a neutrality, on December 12.
TIME: 17:00 - 12:00.
ARRANGEMENT, SIZE AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Turkmenistan is located in Central Asia bordering on the Caspian Sea between Iran and Uzbekistan. Rather, Turkmenistan is a little more, than the State of California, with a total area of 488 100 sq.km (188 456 quarter. Miles). Turkmenistan divides borders with Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan across Russia, Afghanistan, Iran into sw and to the Caspian Sea on w. Length of border of Turkmenistan is 5 504 km (3,420 miles) from which 1 768 km (1099 miles) - the coastline along the Caspian Sea. The capital of Turkmenistan, Ashgabat (that means "the city of love"), is in a southwest part of the country.
The relief has the flat rocky sandy desert with dunes to the Caspian Sea located in the West. The Cara-Kumsky desert occupies more than 80% of total area of Turkmenistan. The desert is limited to oases in the north which water Amu Darya and also the Murghab Rivers, Tedzhen and the Atrek in the south. Only 4% of the territory of Turkmenistan make arable lands from about 2,5% at irrigation. The highest point in Turkmenistan - Mount Ayrybaba (3 139 m / 10 299 feet) located along eastern frontier near Uzbekistan. The lowest point in the country - Vpadina Akchanaya (the Akdzhakaysky depression) at the height of 81 m (266 feet) below sea-level in the northern central region of the country.
Mount Kopet-Dag on the southern border are a part of seismically active region which experienced destructive earthquakes. One of the most destructive earthquakes in the history occurred about Ashgabat on October 5, 1948 when the earthquake by 7,3 times led to death of 110 000 people.
The climate is droughty continental. In July average temperature is 28 °C (82 °F). Average temperature in January is -4 °C (25 °F). In the Kara Kum Desert it can become very hot, at the daytime temperatures of 50 °C (122 °F) it isn't unusual. In Turkmenistan there isn't enough rain. Rains average 25 cm (9,8 inches) a year).
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