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(The state of Mali in Africa)
Currency: CFA franc of BCEAO (XOF)
Population: 10,4 million people
GDP (PPS): 41 bln. dollars of the USA (2017)
Area: 1,240,192 sq.km.
IRCHP: 175 (2015)
Mali is the country which doesn't have an outlet to the sea in the western part of Africa, the most parts reach deeply the center of the Sahara in the north, more than a half of the country is in extremely hot, dusty desert, and its central parts are in Sahel a zone, a transitional zone between the desert and the savanna, the grassy plain in the south. The territory of modern Mali was populated with the people of negroid race apprx. the 7 millennia ago (the asselarsky person). They were engaged in hunting, fishery, cattle breeding. Since the III millennium BC began to be engaged in agriculture, including in nowadays desert and semidesertic areas. The most ancient cultural monuments of Mali belong to the Neolithic era (petroglyphic paintings in Bandiagar; drawings in grottoes near Bamako with scenes of hunting, war, dances, etc.).
Mali it is located in tropics and a subequatorial belt, that is in zones of deserts and semi-deserts where domininut savannas and light forests. Almost all western, central and northern parts of the country (over 90% of the territory) is occupied by the plain 200 — 500 m high. In the north — the stony, sand-stony or pebble Sahara Deserts. Climate of the state of Mali — tropical and desert, in the south — subequatorial. Average annual temperature of 28-29 °C, with insignificant fluctuations on months. The main waterways — the rivers Senegal and Niger. Nearly a half of the territory in the north of the country are occupied by the shrubby and zlako-shrubby Sahara Deserts. To the south — the opustynenny savanna with acacias, cereals, baobabs, palm trees of thoughts. To the south — typical savannas, in the extreme South — the woody savanna.
The Malian relations were steady for decades and were based on overall objectives of strengthening of democracy and reduction of poverty by means of economic growth. Except for crisis of 2012, the democratic government of the country considerably reduced the level of poverty and improved quality of life of many Malians. Nevertheless, remained Mali in the lower part of the Index of human development, especially in the field of health care and education. Mali still faces security concerns. Mali and the United States belong to number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the World Trade Organization. Mali also is one of 15 member countries of EKOVAS (Economic community of the West African states) and one of 12 member countries of KILSS (Standing interstate committee on fight against a drought in Sahel).
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