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(Republic of India)
Capital: New Delhi
Currency: Indian rupee (INR)
Population: 1067,4 million people
GDP (PPS): 10 386 bln. dollars of the USA (2018)
Area: 3,287,263 sq.km.
IRCHP: 131 (2015)
ABOUT THE COUNTRY
The Indian subcontinent was the house for a city civilization of the valley of Indus in the third millennium B.C. Next millennium the oldest writing connected with Hinduism began to be formed. The social stratification based on a caste appeared in the first millennium B.C., and there were a Buddhism and Jainism. Early political consolidations took place under the power Maurya and Gupta; later peninsular Average Kingdoms affected cultures in Southeast Asia. The Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Islam came to a medieval era, and there was Sikhism, all this added to the various culture of the region. The most part of the North fell to the Delhi sultanate; the South was integrated under the Empire of Vidzhayanagara. The economy extended in the 17th century in the empire of Great Moguls. In the middle of the 18th century the subcontinent got under the power of the British East Indian company, and in the middle of the 19th - under the British royal board. The nationalist movement appeared at the end of the 19th century which was later under Mahatma Gandhi it is noted by nonviolent resistance and resulted in independence of India in 1947.
The earliest authenticated human remains in the Southern Asia contain about 30 000 years ago. Almost in all parts of the Indian subcontinent, including in rocky shelters of Bkhimbetki in Madhya Pradesh, almost temporary objects of mesolytic petroglyphic art were found. About 7000. One of the first known neolytic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mekhergar and other places on the subcontinent. They gradually turned into the Civilization of the valley of Indus, the first city culture in the Southern Asia; it prospered during 2500-1900 in northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and the northwest of India. In the center of such cities as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dkholavira and Kalibangan, leaning on various forms of existence, the civilization actively was engaged in production of crafts and broad trade.
India includes the main part of the Indian subcontinent lying at top of the Indian tectonic plate and a part of the Indo-Australian plate. Certain geological processes in India began 75 million years ago when the Indian plate, then a part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began descent to the northeast called by distribution of a seabed on the southwest, and then on the South and the southeast. At the same time huge oceanic crust Aunt's, to the northeast, began to forge under the Euroasian plate. These dual processes caused by convection in an Earth's mantle created the Indian Ocean and finally led to the fact that the Indian continental bark finally pushed Eurasia and lifted the Himalayas.
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