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The capital — Baku. A state language — Azerbaijani. Currency - Azerbaijani manat (AZN, a code 944).
As a result of the destroyed relief, drainage drawings, climatic distinctions and sharply expressed high-rise zoning of vegetation Azerbaijan is characterized by a wide variety of landscapes. More than two fifth of its territories are busy with lowlands, about a half make 1300-4900 feet (400-100 meters), and the area over 4 900 feet occupy a little more one tenth total area.
The highest tops - Bazardyuzhu (Bazarzuzyu, 14 652 feet [4 466 meters]), Shahdagh and Tufan - all this a part of the Big Caucasian ridge which crest is a part of northern border of Azerbaijan. The magnificent spurs and ridges which are cut through by deep gorges of mountain streams do this part of Azerbaijan by the region of big natural beauty. At the same time it is in the region which is characterized by high degree of seismic activity.
Spurs of Lesser Caucasus in the southwest of Azerbaijan form the second important mountain system including the Shahdagh, Muravdagsky and Zangezursky ridges, their tops rise almost up to 13 000 feet and also the Karabakh height. The big and picturesque lake Geygyol is at the height of 5 138 meters.
Southeast part of Azerbaijan borders on the Talysh (Talysh) Mountains consisting of three longitudinal ridges, and the mountain Kyumyurkyoy - the highest top (8176 feet) and the Lyankyaransky lowland along the coast of the Caspian Sea. This lowland, expansion of the Kura-Arak lowland, reaches the Iranian border near Astara.
The Kura-Arassky lowland is called in honor of the main river, the Kura (Kyur) and its inflow Aras (Araz). The Shirvan, Milsky and Mugansky plains are a part of this lowland and have similar soils and climate. Gray soils and saline soils (aridizol), and in higher regions prevail gray alkaline solonetzic soils and chestnut soils (mollizola).
Well developed network of channels between the Kura Rivers and Aras allows to irrigate the most part of the lowland. The top Karabakh channel 107 miles long (172 kilometers) provides the vital communication between the Aras River and the Minchayevirsky reservoir on the Kura River. The reservoir has the area of 234 square miles and the maximum depth of 246 feet. Only the top Karabakh channel irrigates more than 250 000 acres (100 000 hectares) of fertile lands and, besides, delivers the Aras River water during the dry summer periods. The top Shirvan channel, the channel, the second for importance, has length of 76 miles and also irrigates about 250 000 acres.
The arid subtropical climate in the central and east Azerbaijan is characterized in the soft winter and long (from four to five months) and in very hot summer with a temperature on average about 81 °F (27 °C) and with the maximum temperature up to 109 °F (43 °C).
Southeast Azerbaijan is characterized by humid subtropical climate with the highest rainfall in the country, from 47 to 55 inches (1200-1400 millimeters) a year.
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